Kidney stones also known as renal stones are small, hard deposits that form in one or both kidneys. The stones are made up of minerals or other compounds found in urine.Kidney stones vary in size, shape, and color. To be cleared from the body the stones need to travel through ducts that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder and be excreted and in most cases need medical intervention.
Your doctor will do a complete health history assessment, physical examination, and tests to study the type of stones you are suffering from and treatment is tailored accordingly. Treatment options include:
Bladder stones are hard objects in the urinary tract made up of millions of tiny crystals. Sometimes, they don’t cause any symptoms and pass out of your body on their own. You may never even know you had one. But more often, they may cause pain or other problems when you pee. When that happens, you have to get them removed.
If your doctor finds that you have bladder stones, a cystolitholapaxy may be performed. During this procedure an instrument called a cystoscope is inserted into the bladder to locate the bladder stone or stones, which are then crushed using laser energy or ultrasound waves.
Ureteric calculi are stones that form in or travel down to the ureters, which are the slender muscular tubes that connect the kidneys to the urinary bladder. These tubes are physiologically constricted at 3 points along their lengths, namely at the ureteropelvic junction, entry into the pelvis as they cross the bifurcation of the common iliac artery and the ureterovesical junction.
As a consequence, these points are the commonest sites where ureteric calculi may become impacted. This may cause several signs and symptoms that may be site-specific as well as related to the degree of urinary obstruction.
Treatment of ureteral stones depends on the size and location of the stones and the substances from which they are formed. Treatments include: