Chennai Kidney Care

URO ONCOLOGY

Urologic oncology is a branch of urology that involves the diagnosis and treatment of cancers of the urinary system and the male sexual system.

Chennai Kidney Care brings a comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach to treatment plan of cancer patients. New breakthroughs in cancer care, experimental treatment options, and ongoing research into the causes and potential cures of urologic malignancies spell new hope for patients from all walks of life.

TYPES OF CANCERS AND TREATMENTS

  • Prostate Cancer:According to The National Institute on Aging, prostate problems are common after age 50 and it is the commonest amongst urological cancers. Diagnosing prostate cancer in time and knowing which kind of cancer it is to treat it effectively is crucial. Diagnostic Tests:Your doctor will do a number of tests and procedures like:
    1. Physical exam and history
    2. Digital rectal exam
    3. Prostate-specific antigen test
    4. Transrectal ultrasound
    5. Transrectal magnetic resonance imaging
    6. Transrectal biopsy
    7. Pathological study
    Treatment: Once the patient is diagnosed, the patient is counselled regarding the various treatment options depending upon the stage and grade of the disease and age of the patient. One of the treatments is Radical prostatectomy where the whole prostate along with the structures attached to it are removed. The urinary bladder is then joined to the urethra (water pipe). This operation can be done as Robotic or by laparoscopic or by open method. The urological surgeon will guide you as the best method depending on various factors. Postoperatively majority of the patients are fit for discharge by the next day. A urinary catheter, which is fitted at the end of the operation is ready for removal on day as decided by your surgeon. Subsequent to the removal, patient notices two common side effects – incontinence of urine and impotence.
  • Urinary Bladder Cancer: Bladder cancer occurs when there are abnormal, cancerous cells growing uncontrollably in the lining of the bladder, which is the hollow organ in the lower abdomen that stores urine. These cancerous cells begin to affect the normal function of the bladder and can spread to surrounding organs.There are two types of bladder cancer: Nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer, also called superficial bladder cancer, occurs when cancerous cells are contained in the lining of the bladder and have not invaded the bladder wall and Muscle-invasive bladder cancer occurs when the cancer invades the bladder wall.

    Various pathology tests like urinalysis, biopsy, and imaging tests like intravenous pyelogram, CT or CAT scans, ultrasound, cystoscopy are used to determine the grade and type of cancer.

    Treatments:
    1. Treatment for Superficial bladder cancer include cystoscopy with Cautery Destruction of the bladder tumor.
    2. Transurethral resection of the bladder cancer
    3. Intravesical drug therapy
    4. Treatment for Muscle-Invasive bladder cancer involves radical cystectomy, partial cystectomy, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy.
    5. For high grade+\- invasive disease removing the bladder (radical cystectomy) is one of the best choices of treatment. This is a major operation and the pros and cons of this operation needs to weighed carefully with a urological surgeon. This operation (Cystectomy) can be done as Robotic or by laparoscopic or by open method. The urological surgeon will guide you about the best method depending on various factors.
  • Kidney Cancer: Kidney cancer begins in the kidneys–two large, bean-shaped organs–one located to the left, and the other to the right of the backbone. kidney cancer may also be referred to as renal cancer. The exact causes of renal cell cancer are unknown. However, the risk factor related to this are smoking, asbestos, cadmium, family history, gender, other hereditary syndrome, obesity, high blood pressure, diuretics etc.

    Diagnosis: Along with a complete medical history and physical examination other procedures include blood and urine tests, intravenous pyelogram, renal angiography, other image tests like CT and CAT scan, MRI, ultrasound and biopsy based on the results of other tests and procedures.

    Treatments
    1. Surgical nephrectomy which is the most common treatment for kidney stone. Types of nephrectomy include
      1. Radical nephrectomy: whole kidney is removed along with the adrenal gland, tissue around the kidney, and, sometimes, lymph nodes in the area.
      2. Simple nephrectomy: Only the kidney is removed.
      3. Partial nephrectomy: Only the part of the kidney that contains the tumor is removed.
    2. Radiation therapy
    3. Chemotherapy
    4. Biological therapy